Digital survey bd
PREPARATION AND SCOPE :
The intelligence survey is an in-depth study of a complete space that may be used for a Digital survey bd or landing field. Its purpose is to eliminate those routes or sites that area unit impractical or impossible and to spot the more brilliant routes or sites.
Existing maps and aerial pictures could also be of nice facilitating. Contour maps show the parcel options and also the relief of a part. Aerial pictures show up-to-date planimetric details.
The intelligence survey should embrace all potential routes and sites. The intelligence survey report ought to summarize all the collected info, as well as an outline of every route or website, a conclusion on the economy of its use, and, wherever potential, acceptable maps and aerial pictures.
Design: Design and military characteristics ought to be thought-about throughout the intelligence survey. Detain mind that future operations might need a dilated road web. A study of the route plans and specifications is important. If this area unit unprocurable, use the subsequent as guides.
1) Locate parts of the new road on or over existing roads, railroads, or trails, whenever potential.
2) Locate the road on high-bearing-strength soil that’s stable and simply drained, avoiding swamps, marshes, and organic soil.
3) Locate the road on ridges and streamlines, keeping drain structures to a minimum. Keep the grade well on top of the high water line once following a stream.
4) Select a route as almost sources of fabric as sensible, and find the road on contour lines to avoid supererogatory earthwork.
5) locate the road on the sunny aspect of hills and canyons, and thereon aspect of the ravine wall wherever the inclination of the strata tends to support the road instead of causing the road to slip into the ravine.
6) Locate roads in forwarding combat zones in order that they’re hidden and guarded against the enemy hearth. This might every now and then conflict with engineering issues.
7) Select locations that conserve engineer assets, avoiding rockwork and excessive clearing. Avoid sharp curves and locations that involve bridging.
8) Avoid sharp curves and locations that involve bridging.
COLLECTION OF KNOWLEDGE : Upon completion, the intelligence survey ought to support the routes surveyed and supply a basis of a study showing the benefits and downsides of all routes reconnoitered. Typical knowledge collected in a very intelligence survey are-
- Sketches of all routes reconnoitered.
- Reports of possible routes. Knowledge on clearing and grubbing.
- The range of stream crossings involving bridge spans surpassing twenty feet or half-dozen meters.
- The approximate range of culverts and spans but twenty feet or half-dozen meters. Descriptions and sizes of marsh areas and different natural obstacles.
- Unusual grade and alignment issues encountered.
- Anticipated effects of landslides, melting snow, and rain.
- Soil conditions and stream and substrate conditions at planned bridge sites.
- Discrepancies noted in maps or aerial pictures.
- Availability of native materials, equipment, transportation facilities, and labor.
- Photographs or sketches of reference points, management points, structure sites, parcel obstacles, and any uncommon conditions.
USE OF MAPS : The procurance of maps could be a vital section of the intelligence. The surveyor ought to find and use all existing maps, as well as up-to-date aerial pictures of the world to be reconnoitered. Massive scale geographic maps area unit fascinating as a result of they depict the parcel within the greatest detail. The maps, with overlays, function worksheets for plotting trial alignments and approximate grades and distances.
The Digital survey bd begins a map study by marking the limiting boundaries and such terminals directly on the map. Between boundaries and such terminals, the surveyor observes the prevailing routes, ridge lines, water courses, mountain gaps, and similar management options. The surveyor should conjointly search for a parcel which can enable moderate grades, the simplicity of alignment, and a balance between cut and fill.
After nearer examination, the routes that seem to suit the case area unit classified. As the additional study shows the disadvantages of every route, the Digital survey bd lowers the classification. The routes to be additionally reconnoitered within the field area unit marked exploitation pencils of various colors to denote priority or preference. Taking advantage of the prevailing parcel conditions to stay excavation to a minimum, the surveyor determines grades, estimates the quantity of clearing to be done on every route, and marks stream crossings and marsh areas for potential fords, bridges, or drain crossings.